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Referencing Guide

APA Referencing Style Guide

This page provides APA information and examples for students and staff of the University of Waikato. It is designed to accompany (not replace) the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010), which is available in the Library.

Citations in Text

To cite works of others, APA style uses an author-date citation method. Citations in text are acknowledged with (Author, Date) or Author (Date).

Direct quotation

Use quotation marks and include page numbers.

Samovar and Porter (1997) point out that "language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (p. 188) or

"Language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (Samovar & Porter, 1997, p. 188).

A long quotation

A quotation of 40 or more words should be formatted as a freestanding, indented block of text without quotation marks. Note the location of the final full stop.

Weston (1948) argues that: One of the most important phases of our special guests was to get information that would throw light on degeneration of the facial pattern that occurs so often in our modern civilization. This has its expression in the narrowing and lengthening of the face and the development of crooked teeth. (p. 174) A quotation with no page numbers

If you quote from online material and there are no page numbers (e.g. HTML based document), use the paragraph number (para.) instead.

"Prevalence rates of antenatal major and minor depression have been estimated in community-based studies to range from 7% to 15% of all pregnancies" (Grote, Swartz, Geibel&Zuckoff, 2009, para. 2).

Indirect Quotation / Paraphrasing

Page numbers are optional when paraphrasing, although authors are encouraged to include them, especially when it assists the reader to locate the reference in long pieces of text (Publication Manual, p. 171).

Giving meaning to specific symbols such as sounds and marks is considered to be the origin of written language (Samovar & Porter, 1997, p. 188).

A citation from a secondary source

When you find a quote (e.g. Arnett) within a work that you have read (e.g. Claiborne &Drewery) and you wish to refer to the original quote (Arnett), this is called citing from a secondary source.

  • Where possible, try and track down the original work and quote from that.

In text citation

  • In-text, name the original work as well as the work you have read.
  • Use the phrase 'as cited in' to signify the secondary source.

Arnett (2000, as cited in Claiborne &Drewery, 2010) suggests there is an emerging adult stage in the lifespan of humans, covering young people between the ages of 18 and 25 years.

In reference list

List Claiborne &Drewery in your reference list, not Arnett.

Claiborne, L., &Drewery, W. (2010). Human development: Family, place, culture. North Ryde, Australia: McGraw-Hill.

A citation from a secondary source in an edited book

Edited books are put together by editors and usually have chapters written by different authors. The authors of these chapters may quote or paraphrase other authors. If you quote or paraphrase these other authors, you must acknowledge everyone - the author(s) of the quote, the author(s) of the chapter in the edited book and the editor(s) of the edited book.

  • Where possible, try and track down the original work and quote from that.

In text citation

As Wearmouth and Connors (2004) state, "schooling plays a critical part in shaping a student's sense of 'self', that is, in his or her belief in his or her ability, responsibility and skill in initiating and completing actions and tasks" (as cited in Glynn & Berryman, 2005, p. 298).

In reference list

Glynn, T. & Berryman, M. (2005).Understanding and responding to students' behaviour difficulties. In D. Fraser, R. Moltzen, & K. Ryba (Eds.), Learners with special needs in Aotearoa New Zealand (3rd ed., pp.294-315). Palmerston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press.

Reference List

At the end of your assignment, you are required to provide the full bibliographic information for each source cited in text. References must be listed in alphabetical order by author, and then chronologically.

Exception: When citing from a secondary source, list only the secondary source in which you found the original information, and do not list the primary source in the reference list.

  • Start the list of references on a new page at the end of your assignment.
  • Do not use footnotes for referencing (Publication Manual, p.37)
  • References should use the hanging indent format.
  • Each reference type (e.g. Book, Journal) has a standardised format. See also Formatting elements section for detailed information on how to format authors/date/title/publication information.

    Book and book chapter

    Each reference should include four elements: (1) Author/Editor/Producer (2) Date (3) Title of the work and (4) Publication Information. Author, A., & Author, B. (Year).Title of the work. Place name: Publisher.

    Electronic books

    If the item is available online, a retrieval statement or DOI is required after (3) Title. Exclude (4) Publication Information. Author, A., & Author, B. (Year).Title of the work. Retrieved from http://... Author, A., & Author, B. (Year).Title of the work. http://dx.doi.org/xx-xxxxxxx

    A chapter in a book

    When a book consists of many chapters written by different authors, reference each chapter you used.

    Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Chapter title. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp.xx-xx). Place name: Publisher.

    Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Chapter title. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp.xx-xx). Retrieved from http://...

    Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Chapter title. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp.xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xx-xxxxxxx

    Periodicals

    Items published on a regular basis, such as journals, magazines and newspapers, are known as serials or periodicals. Include the same elements as for a book, but exclude the publication information and add the volume, issue and page number(s) instead.

    Each reference should include the following elements: (1) Author (2) Date (3) Title of article (4) Title of Periodical (5) Volume, Issue and Page numbers.

    Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Article title. Title of Periodical, x(x), pp-pp

    A journal article available online

    Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Article title. Title of Periodical, x(x), pp-pp. http://dx.doi.org/xxx-xxxxx

    Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Article title. Title of Periodical, x(x), pp-pp. Retrieved from http://...

    Online documents / Webpages

    Include the same elements as for a book, but exclude the publication information and add a retrieval statement in its place: (1) Author (2) Date (3) Title (4) Retrieval statement. Include a retrieval date if the source material is likely to change over time (Publication Manual, p. 192).

    Author, A., & Author, B. (Year).Title of the webpage. Retrieved from http://...

    Author, A., & Author, B. (Year).Title of the webpage. Retrieved from ...website: http://...

    Author, A., & Author, B. (Year, Month Day).Title of the webpage [Description of form]. Retrieved Year, Month Day from http://...

Formatting elements

Each element (e.g. Author[s], Date, Title, Publication information) has a standardised format including punctuation and presentation style (e.g. capital letters and italics etc.).

Author(s)

In text citation

Acknowledge a citation with author's last name and publication year.

  • For two or more works within the same in text parentheses, order the authors alphabetically as they would appear in the reference list. Separate them with semicolons.
  • Separate two or more works by the same author with a comma (Publication Manual, p. 177-178).
  • On the other hand, much has been already discussed ... (Brown, 2003; Cunningham, 2001; Stewart, 1995, 1999, 2004).

  • For authors with the same surname, include the author's initials in all in text citations, even if the year differs (Publication Manual, p. 176, section 6.14).

In the literature reviewed, A . B. Smith (2003) and C. Smith (2010) ...

In reference list

Invert the author(s) name(s), and use initial(s) of first name(s). Use the ampersand (&) between the last two authors' names (also note the full stop and comma after each author's name).

One author Brown, W. P. Two authors Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. Three to five authors Krause, K.-L., Bochner, S., &Duchesne, S.Shepherd, R., Barnett, Six or seven authors J., Cooper, H., Coyle, A., Moran-Ellis, J., Senior, V., & Walton, C. Eight or more authors Chiappini, E., Principi, N., Longhi, R., Tovo, P. A., Becherucci, P., Bonsignori, F., ... de Martino, M. Corporate / group Ministry of Education author No author Use Anonymous only if this is used in the publication.

  • Eight or more authors: List first six authors, then insert three elipses (...), followed by the last author.
  • Corporate / group author: i.e. an organisation, association or government department.
  • If the author's first name is hyphenated, include the hyphen with a full stop after each initial.

Date

The year of publication goes in parentheses ( ) after the author(s).

Books and academic journals (1993)

Magazines and newspapers:

Monthly (1993, June) Daily, weekly (1993, June 12) No date (n.d.) In press (in press)

If an author has published more than one item in the same year, add lower case letters a, b, c etc. immediately after the year. The order is arranged alphabetically by title in the references list, but exclude 'A' or 'The' when it is the first word (Publication Manual, p. 182).

In text citation

As discussed by Lohan (2009b), it is inevitable... Lohan (2009a) also suggested that…

In reference list

Lohan, L. (2009a). Managerial behaviour and... The Journal of Information and…

Lohan, L. (2009b). A new perspective on ... New Zealand Journal of Management…

Title of the work

Titles of formally published materials (e.g. Books, Journals, DVDs) are italicised, with the first letter of the first word of the main title and the subtitle in capital letters. Proper nouns also begin with a capital letter.

Exception: Journal titles (including magazines and newspapers) are italicised and all key words in the journal title begin with a capital letter.

  • Do not italicise an article title in a journal or chapter title in an edited book.

Publication Information

Publication Place

Give the location (city) of the publisher - give the first city listed only.

Exception: Place of publication is not required for journal, magazine or newspaper articles.

American cities Thousand Oaks, CA Hamilton, New Zealand Non-American cities London, England Non-American cities with a state Sydney, Australia

  • For the United States, use the city name, then the 2-letter postal code instead of the United States.
  • If the publisher is located outside the United States, use city and country written in full, e.g. New Zealand not N.Z.

Publishers

Use the first publisher listed if multiple publishers are given.

Exception: Publishers are not required for journal, magazine or newspaper articles.

  • Do not include words like Publishers, Co., or Inc. However, keep words like Books or Press.
  • When the author is the publisher of the work, use the word 'Author' in the publisher field.

Additional information (e.g. Editions)

Information such as edition (excluding 1st edition) or report number goes in parentheses ( ) immediately after the title (Publication Manual, p. 186).

Jespersen, N. D., Brady, J. E., &Hyslop, A. (2012). The molecular nature of matter (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

A description of the work goes in square brackets [ ]afterthe title.

e.g. [DVD], [Poster], [Kindle DX version], [Powerpoint slides], [Letter to the editor] etc.

Christchurch Methodist Central Mission. (1984). Durham Street Church: 120 years anniversary brochure: 1864-1984 [Brochure]. Christchurch, New Zealand: Author.

Harvard Referencing: Guide

Harvard is a style of referencing, primarily used by university students, to cite information sources.

Two types of citations are included:

  1. In-text citations are used when directly quoting or paraphrasing a source. They are located in the body of the work and contain a fragment of the full citation.

    Depending on the source type, some Harvard Reference in-text citations may look something like this:

    "After that I lived like a young rajah in all the capitals of Europe…" (Fitzgerald, 2004).

  2. Reference Lists are located at the end of the work and display full citations for sources used in the assignment.

    Here is an example of a full citation for a book found in a Harvard Reference list:

    Fitzgerald, F. (2004). The great Gatsby. New York: Scribner.

Harvard Reference List Overview

Reference lists are created to allow readers to locate original sources themselves. Each citation in a reference list includes various pieces of information including the:

  1. Name of the author(s)
  2. Year published
  3. Title
  4. City published
  5. Publisher
  6. Pages used

Generally, Harvard Reference List citations follow this format:

  • Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If there are multiple sources by the same author, then citations are listed in order by the date of publication.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with One Author

The structure for a Harvard Reference List citation for books with one author includes the following:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (Only include the edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s).

If the edition isn’t listed, it is safe to assume that it is the first addition, and does not need to be included in the citation.

Example: One author AND first edition:

  • Patterson, J. (2005). Maximum ride. New York: Little, Brown.

Example: One author AND NOT the first edition

  • Dahl, R. (2004). Charlie and the chocolate factory. 6th ed. New York: Knopf.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with Two or More Authors

When creating a citation that has more than one author, place the names in the order in which they appear on the source. Use the word “and” to separate the names.

  • Last name, First initial. and Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

Example:

  • Desikan, S. and Ramesh, G. (2006). Software testing. Bangalore, India: Dorling Kindersley, p.156.
  • Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. (2014). Discovering computers. Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.446-448.
  • Daniels, K., Patterson, G. and Dunston, Y. (2014). The ultimate student teaching guide. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, pp.145-151.

* remember, when citing a book, only include the edition if it is NOT the first edition!

Harvard Reference List Citations for Chapters in Edited Books

When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In: First initial. Last name, ed., Book Title, 1st ed.* City: Publisher, Page(s).
  • Bressler, L. (2010). My girl, Kylie. In: L. Matheson, ed., The Dogs That We Love, 1st ed. Boston: Jacobson Ltd., pp. 78-92.

* When citing a chapter in an edited book, the edition is displayed, even when it is the first edition.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Multiple Works By The Same Author

When there are multiple works by the same author, place the citations in order by year. When sources are published in the same year, place them in alphabetical order by the title.

Example:

  • Brown, D. (1998). Digital fortress. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Brown, D. (2003). Deception point. New York: Atria Books.
  • Brown, D. (2003). The Da Vinci code. New York: Doubleday.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Journal Articles

The standard structure of a print journal citation includes the following components:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s).

Example:

  • Ross, N. (2015). On Truth Content and False Consciousness in Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory. Philosophy Today, 59(2), pp. 269-290.
  • Dismuke, C. and Egede, L. (2015). The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in Community Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(5), pp. 183-195.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website

When citing journal articles found on a database or through a website, include all of the components found in a citation of a print journal, but also include the medium ([online]), the website URL, and the date that the article was accessed.

Structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal, [online] Volume(Issue), pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Raina, S. (2015). Establishing Correlation Between Genetics and Nonresponse. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, [online] Volume 61(2), p. 148. Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuest-Research-Library.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Newspaper Articles

When citing a newspaper, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, Page(s).

Example:

  • Weisman, J. (2015). Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York Times, p.A1.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Newspaper Articles Found on a Database or a Website

To cite a newspaper found either on a database or a website, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, [online] pages. Available at: url [Accessed Day Mo. Year]

Example:

  • Harris, E. (2015). For Special-Needs Students, Custom Furniture Out of Schoolhouse Scraps. New York Times, [online] p.A20. Available at: http://go.galegroup.com [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Magazines

When citing magazines, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Magazine, (Volume), Page(s).

Example:

  • Davidson, J. (2008). Speak her language. Men’s Health, (23), pp.104-106.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Websites

When citing a website, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

When no author is listed, use the following structure:

  • Website name, (Year published). Page title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Messer, L. (2015). 'Fancy Nancy' Optioned by Disney Junior. [online] ABC News. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/fancy-nancy-optioned-disney-junior-2017/story?id=29942496#.VRWbWJwmbs0.twitter [Accessed 31 Mar. 2015].
  • Mms.com, (2015). M&M'S Official Website. [online] Available at: http://www.mms.com/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].

Harvard Reference List Citations for eBooks and PDFs

When citing eBooks and PDFs, include the edition, even if it’s the first edition, and follow it with the type of resource in brackets (either [ebook] or [pdf]). Include the url at the end of the citation with the date it was accessed in brackets.

Use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. [format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
  • Zusack, M. (2015). The Book Thief. 1st ed. [ebook] New York: Knopf. Available at: http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].
  • Robin, J. (2014). A handbook for professional learning: research, resources, and strategies for implementation. 1st ed. [pdf] New York: NYC Department of Education. Available at http://schools.nyc.gov/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Archive Material

Archival materials are information sources that are used to provide evidence of past events. Archival materials are generally collected and housed by organizations, such as universities, libraries, repositories, or historical societies. Examples can include manuscripts, letters, diaries, or any other artifact that the organization decides to collect and house.

The structure for archival materials includes:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the material. [format] Name of the university, library, organization, Collection name, code, or number. City.

Example:

  • Pearson, J. (1962). Letter to James Martin. [letter] The Jackson Historical Society, Civil Rights Collection. Jackson.
  • Marshall, S. and Peete, L. (1882). Events Along the Canal. [program] Afton Library, Yardley History. Yardley.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Artwork

To cite artwork, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year created). Title. [Medium]. City that the artwork is/was displayed in: Gallery or Museum.

Example:

  • Gilbert, S. (1795-1796). George Washington. [Oil on canvas] New York: The Frick Collection.
  • Jensen, L., Walters, P. and Walsh, Q. (1994). Faces in the Night. [Paint Mural] Trenton: The Trenton Free Library.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Blogs

Blogs are regularly updated webpages that are generally run by an individual.

When citing a blog post, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Post title. [Blog] Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Cohen, M. (2013). Re-election Is Likely for McConnell, but Not Guaranteed. [Blog] FiveThirtyEight. Available at: http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/re-election-is-likely-for-mcconnell-but-not-guaranteed/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2015].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Broadcasts

To cite a radio or tv broadcast, use the following structure:

  • Series title, (Year published). [Type of Programme] Channel number: Broadcaster.

Example:

  • Modern Family, (2010). [TV programme] 6: Abc.
  • The Preston and Steve Morning Show (2012). [Radio Programme] 93.3: WMMR.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Conference Proceedings

Conference proceedings are academic papers or presentations that are created or used for the purpose of a meeting or conference.

Use the following structure to cite a conference proceeding:

If published online:

  • Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. [online] City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

If not published online:

  • Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages.

Example:

  • Palmer, L., Gover, E. and Doublet, K. (2013). Advocating for Your Tech Program. In: National Conference for Technology Teachers. [online] New York: NCTT, pp. 33-34. Available at: http://www.nctt.com/2013conference/advocatingforyourtechprogram/ [Accessed 11 Jan. 2014].
  • Fox, R. (2014). Technological Advances in Banking. In: American Finance Association Northeast Regional Conference. Hartford: AFA, p. 24. Harvard Reference List Citations for Court Cases
To cite a court case, use the following format:
  • Case name [Year published]Report abbreviation Volume number (Name or abbreviation of court); First page of court case.

Example:

  • Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. [2015]12-1226 (Supreme Court of the United States); 1.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dictionary Entry

When citing a dictionary entry in print, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page.

When citing a dictionary entry found online, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

**If no author/editor/or contributor is given, omit it from the citation. **If the publishing year is unavailable, use the abbreviation n.d., which stands for no date

Example:

  • Sporadic (1993). In: Webstin Dictionary, 8th ed. New York: Webstin LLC, page 223.
  • Reference. (n.d.) In: Merriam-Webster [online] Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reference [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dissertations

A dissertation is a lengthy paper or project, generally created as a requirement to obtain a doctoral degree. Use the following structure to create a citation for a dissertation:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Dissertation title. Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution.

Example:

  • Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing. PhD. Yeshiva University.

Harvard Reference List Citations for DVD, Video, and Film

When citing a DVD, Video, or Film, use the following format:

  • Film title. (Year published). [Format] Place of origin: Film maker.

**The place of origin refers to the place where the dvd, film, or video was made. Eg: Hollywood **The film maker can be the director, studio, or main producer.

Example:

  • Girls Just Want To Have Fun. (1985). [film] Chicago: Alan Metter.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Emails

Email citations use the following format:

  • Sender’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Subject Line of Email. [email].

Example:

  • Niles, A. (2013). Update on my health. [email].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Encyclopedia Articles

An encyclopedia is a book, or set of books, used to find information on a variety of subjects. Most encyclopedias are organized in alphabetical order. Use this format to cite an encyclopedia:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. In: Encyclopedia title, Edition. City published: Publisher, page(s).

Example:

  • Harding, E. (2010). Anteaters. In: The International Encyclopedia of Animals, 3rd ed. New York: Reference World, p. 39.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Government Publications

Government publications consist of documents that are issued by local, state, or federal governments, offices, or subdivisions. Use the following format to cite the government publications:

  • Government Agency OR Last name, First Initial., (Year published). Title of Document or Article. City published: Publisher, Page(s).

Example:

  • Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, (2012). BicyclePA Routes. Harrisburg: PENNDOT, p.1.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Interviews

When citing an interview, use the following format:

  • Last name of Interviewer, First initial. and Last name of Interviewee, First initial. (Year of Interview). Title or Description of Interview.

Example:

  • Booker, C. and Lopez, J. (2014). Getting to know J. Lo.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Music or Recordings

To cite a music piece or recording, use the following format:

  • Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Medium] City published: Music Label.

When citing a music piece or recording found online, use the following structure:

  • Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Online] City published: Music Label. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Jackson, M. (1982). Thriller. [CD] West Hollywood: Epic.
  • Kaskade, (2015). Never Sleep Alone. [Online] Burbank: Warner Bros/Arkade. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/kaskade/kaskade-never-sleep-alone [Accessed 7 Apr. 2015].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Online Images or Videos

To cite an image or video found electronically, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [format] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Williams, A. (2013). DJ Gear. [image] Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
  • 7UP (2015). 7UP Team Up Tiesto. [video]. Available at: https://youtu.be/TMZqgEgy_Xg [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Patents

When citing patents, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title or Description of Patent. Patent number.

**It should be noted that even if the information is found online, no online information needs to be included.

Example:

  • Masuyama, T., Suzuki, M. and Fujimoto, H. (1993). Structure for securing batteries used in an electric vehicle. 5,392,873.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Podcasts

When citing a podcast, use the following format:

  • Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title. [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Provenzano, N. (2012). #NerdyCast Episode 5. [podcast]. #NerdyCast. Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/nerdycast/id514797904?mt=2 [Accessed 14 Dec. 2014].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Presentations and Lectures

To cite a presentation or lecture, use the following structure:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year) Presentation Title.

Example:

  • Valenza, J. (2014). Librarians and Social Capital.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Press Releases

When citing a press release in print, use the following format:

  • Corporate Author, (Year published). Title.

If found online, use the following format:

  • Corporate Author, (Year published). Title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Imagine Easy Solutions, (2015). ResearchReady Jr. Now Available For Elementary Age Students.
  • EBSCO, (2014). EBSCO adds EasyBib Citation Integration. [online] Available at: http://campustechnology.com [Accessed 11 Jan. 2015].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Religious Texts

To cite any type of religious text, such as the Bible, Torah, Quran, use the following format:
  • Title (Year published). City published: Publisher, pages used.

Example:

  • New American Standard Bible, (1998). Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc, pp.332-340.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Reports

When citing a report, use the following format:

  • Last name, First Initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title. [online] City published: Publisher, Pages used. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Example:

  • Certify, (2015). First Quarter, 2015 Business Expense Trends. [online] Portland: Certify, p.2. Available at: http://www.certify.com/CertifySpendSmartReport.aspx [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].

Harvard Reference List Citations for Software

When citing software, use the following format:

  • Title or Name of Software. (Year Published). Place or city where the software was written: Company or publisher.

Example:

  • Espanol. (2010). Arlington: Rosetta Stone.

Harvard Reference List Overview

Harvard In-Text Citations Overview

Students use in-text citations to indicate the specific parts of their paper that were paraphrased or quoted directly from a source. Each in-text citation generally displays the last name of the author and the year the source was published.

The in-text citation is usually located at the end of the quoted or paraphrased sentence.

In-Text Citations for One Author

The author’s last name and the year that the source was published are placed in the parentheses.

Example:

  • Gatsby’s infatuation with Daisy is often revealed in the story, often in simple phrases such as, “... he turned toward her with a rush of emotion” (Fitzgerald, 2004).

If the author’s name is already used in the body of the text, then students should exclude it from the in-text citation.

Example:

  • Fitzgerald’s use of “old sport” throughout the novel suggests that Gatsby considered Nick Carraway a close friend (2004).

In-Text Citations for Two or Three Authors

When a source has two authors, place both authors’ names in the order in which they appear on the source, with the word and separating them.

Examples:

  • “A range of values can express emotion, too. Stark, high-contrast drawings may carry a strong emotional charge” (Lazzari and Schleiser, 2011).
  • “Rather than constantly seeking approval from others, try to seek approval from the person who matters the most - yourself” (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, 2011).

In-Text Citations for Four or More Authors

Only use the first listed author’s name in the in-text citation, followed by “et al.” and the publishing year.

Example:

  • It can be said that “knowledge of the stages of growth and development helps predict the patient’s response to the present illness or the threat of future illness” (Potter et al., 2013).

Example:

  • Potter et al. (2013) go on to explain that “among the most Catholic Filipinos, parents keep the newborn inside the home until after the baptism to ensure the baby’s health and protection.”

In-Text Citations for Corporate Authors

Use the name of the organization in place of the author.

Example:

  • “Dr.Scharschmidt completed her residency in 2012, joined the Leaders Society in 2013, and became a new volunteer this year to encourage other young dermatologists in her area to join her in leadership giving” (Dermatology Foundation, 2014).

If the name of the organization is used in the text, place only the year in parentheses.

Example:

  • The Dermatology Foundation (2013) stated in their report that “industry also played an important role in the success of the highly rated annual DF Clinical Symposia—Advances in Dermatology.”

In-Text Citations for No Author

When an author’s name cannot be found, place the title of the text in the parentheses, followed by the publishing year.

Example:

  • Lisa wasn’t scared, she was simply shocked and caught off guard to notice her father in such a peculiar place (Lost Spaces, 2014). In-Text Citations With No Date

When a date is not included in a source, simply omit that information from the in-text citation.

Example:

  • “Her hair was the color of lilac blossoms, while a peculiar color, it fit her quite well” (Montalvo)

MLA Referencing

Introduction

This guide provides basic explanations and examples for the most common types of citations used by students. For additional information and examples, refer to the MLA Handbook.

Parenthetical references

Parenthetical documentation allows you to acknowledge a source within your text by providing a reference to exactly where in that source you found the information. The reader can then follow up on the complete reference listed on the Works Cited page at the end of your paper.

  • Where possible, try and track down the original work and quote from that.

In text citation

  • In most cases, providing the author's last name and a page number are sufficient:

    In response to rapid metropolitan expansion, urban renewal projects sought "an order in which more significant kinds of conflict, more complex and intellectually stimulating kinds of disharmony, may take place" (Mumford 485).

  • If there are two or three authors, include the last name of each:

    (Winks and Kaiser 176) (Choko, Bourassa, and Baril 258-263)

  • If there are more than three authors, include the last name of the first author followed by "et al." without any intervening punctuation:

    (Baldwin et al. 306)

  • If the author is mentioned in the text, only the page reference needs to be inserted:

    According to Postman, broadcast news influences the decision-making process (51-63).

  • If there is no author, as is the case with some web pages, include either the whole title of the work in the text or use a shortened form of the title in parentheses, using the first words of the title. Italicize the titles of books and place the titles of articles in quotation marks:

    Voice of the Shuttle has many electronic sources

  • If there are no page numbers in your source, as is the case with some web pages, you can indicate the section or paragraph number in your parenthetical reference. If there are no such reference marks, do not include them in your reference. Do not count unnumbered paragraphs:

    Winston argues that "Rourke has lowered his defenses" (par. 29).

  • When citing a quotation which is cited in another source, indicate the source you actually consulted in your parenthetical reference and in your works cited. Use the abbreviation qtd. in to indicate that the information has been quoted in another source:

  • Landow admitted that there was "work to be done" (qtd. in Rogers 333).

Further examples and explanations are available in Chapter 6 of the MLA Handbook.

Works cited - General guidelines

The alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of your paper contains more information about all of the sources you've cited allowing readers to refer to them, as needed. The main characteristics are:

  • The list of Works Cited must be on a new page at the end of your text
  • Entries are arranged alphabetically by the author's last name or by the title if there is no author
  • Titles are italicized (not underlined) and all important words should be capitalized
  • Entries are double-spaced (for the purposes of this page, single-spacing is used)
  • Each entry must include the publication medium. Examples include: Print, Web, DVD, and Television.

Works cited - Book with 1 author

Mumford, Lewis. The Culture of Cities. New York: Harcourt, 1938. Print.

Works cited - Book with 2 or 3 authors

Francis, R. Douglas, Richard Jones, and Donald B. Smith. Destinies: Canadian History since Confederation. Toronto: Harcourt, 2000. Print.

Works cited - Book with 4 or more authors

Baldwin, Richard et al. Economic Geography and Public Policy. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2003. Print.

Works cited - Two or more books by the same author

Replace the author's name by three hyphens and arrange alphabetically by the book's title:

Postman, Neil.Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. New York: Viking, 1985. Print.

---.The Disappearance of Childhood. New York: Vintage, 1994. Print.

Works cited - Anthology or compilation

Abate, Corinne S., ed. Privacy, Domesticity, and Women in Early Modern England. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2003. Print.

Works cited - Work in an anthology or an essay in a book

Naremore, James. "Hitchcock at the Margins of Noir." Alfred Hitchcock: Centenary Essays. Ed. Richard Allen and S. Ishii-Gonzalès. London: BFI, 1999. 263-77. Print.

Works cited - Book by a corporate author

Associations, corporations, agencies and organizations are considered authors when there is no single author.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Action against Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond. Paris: OECD, 1999. Print.

Works cited - Article in a reference book or an entry in an encyclopedia

If the article/entry is signed, include the author's name; if unsigned, begin with the title of the entry Guignon, Charles B. "Existentialism." RoutledgeEncyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Edward Craig. 10 vols. London: Routledge, 1998. Print.

Works cited - Article reprinted in a reference book online

Carlson, Eric W. “The Range of Symbolism in Poetry.” The South Atlantic Quarterly 48.3 (1949): 442-52. Rpt. in Poetry Criticism. Ed. Jane Kelly Kosek and Christine Slovey. Vol. 13. Detroit: Gale, 1995. 83-84. Literature Criticism Online. Web. 18 Oct. 2009.

Works cited - A translation

Kafka, Franz. Metamorphosis. Trans. and Ed. Stanley Corngold. New York: Bantam, 1972. Print.

Works cited - A government publication

Canada. Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.Freedom from Fear: Canada's Foreign Policy for Human Security. Ottawa: DFAIT, 2002. Print. United Nations. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Charting the Progress of Populations. New York: UN, 2000. Print.

Works cited - Book in a series

Bloom, Harold, ed. André Malraux. New York: Chelsea House, 1988. Print. Modern Critical Views.

Works cited - Article in a journal

Article retrieved in print/paper format:

Ferrer, Ada. "Cuba 1898: Rethinking Race, Nation, and Empire." Radical History Review 73 (1999): 22-49. Print. Man, Glenn K. S. "The Third Man: Pulp Fiction and Art Film." Literature Film Quarterly 21.3 (1993): 171-178. Print.

Article retrieved on the Web:

Sehmby, Dalbir S. "Wrestling and Popular Culture." CCLWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 4.1 (2002): n. pag. Web. 29 Mar. 2009.

Article retrieved in a library database:

Provide the same information as you would for a printed journal article and add the name of the database in italics, and indicate the publication medium as Web and the date of access. NOTE - If there are no page numbers, or if the page numbers for each article in a journal appear in a new sequence for each item rather than continuously across the entire issue, write n. pag. Brennan, Katherine Stern. "Culture in the Cities: Provincial Academies during the Early Years of Louis XIV's Reign." Canadian Journal of History 38.1 (2003): 19-42. CBCA Complete. Web. 29 Mar. 2004. Dussault, Marc and Bruce G. Barnett. "Peer-assisted Leadership: Reducing Educational Managers' Professional Isolation." Journal of Educational Administration 34.3 (1996): 5-14. ABI/INFORM Global. Web. 29 Mar. 2004. Heming, Li, Paul Waley, and Phil Rees. "Reservoir Resettlement in China: Past Experience and the Three Gorges Dam." The Geographical Journal 167.3 (2001): 195-212. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Mar. 2004.

Works cited - Article in a newspaper or magazine

Semenak, Susan. "Feeling Right at Home: Government Residence Eschews Traditional Rules." Montreal Gazette 28 Dec. 1995, Final Ed.: A4. Print. Driedger, Sharon Doyle. "After Divorce." Maclean's 20 Apr. 1998: 38-43. Print.

Works cited - An entire Web site

Linder, Douglas O. Famous Trials.Univ. of Missouri Kansas-City Law School, 2009. Web. 29 Apr. 2009.

Works cited - A page on a Web site

An entry for a nonperiodical item found on the Web contains the following: Last name, First name. "Document title if available." Title of the overall Web site.Version or edition if available.Publisher or N.p. to designate no publisher, publication date or n.d. to mean no date. Web. Date of access. If you cannot find some of this information, include only what is available. "Joyce Wieland." Celebrating Women's Achievements: Women Artists in Canada. National Library of Canada, 2000. Web. 29 Mar. 2004. Cassidy, Penny. "You Can't Read That." NBC New York. NBC Universal, 18 Apr. 2009. Web. 29 Apr. 2009.

Works cited - A review

Kirn, Walter. "The Wages of Righteousness." Rev. of Cloudsplitter, by Russell Banks.New York Times Book Review 22 Feb. 1998: 9. Print. Kauffmann, Stanley. "A New Spielberg." Rev of Schindler's List, dir. Steven Spielberg.New Republic 13 Dec. 1993: 30. Print.

Works cited - Television or radio program

"Scandal of the Century." Narr. Linden MacIntyre. The Fifth Estate. CBC Television. 23 Jan. 2002. Television.

Works cited - Sound recording

Ellington, Duke. "Black and Tan Fantasy." Music is My Mistress. Musicmasters, 1989. CD.

Works cited - Film, videorecording or DVD

The Shining. Dir. Stanley Kubrick.Perf. Jack Nicholson, Shelley Duvall.Warner Bros., 1980. Videocassette. Macbeth. Dir. Roman Polanski. Perf. Jon Finch, Francesca Annis, and Nicholas Selby. 1971. Columbia, 2002. DVD.

Works cited - Musical composition, published score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony no. 4 in B-flat major, op. 60. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2001. Print.

Works cited - Work of art, photographed, in a book

Cassatt, Mary. Mother and Child. 1890. Wichita Art Museum, Wichita. American Painting: 1560-1913. By John Pearce. New York: McGraw, 1964. Slide 22.

OSCOLA Referencing

Introduction

A brief introduction to OSCOLA referencing and some help to get you started.

What is OSCOLA referencing?

The Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) is the preferred referencing style used by the Bristol Law School and the Bristol Institute of Legal Practice. If you are a non-law student using legal materials, you may be required to use the UWE Harvard referencing standard. Please check with your personal tutor.

New to referencing?

If you're entirely new to referencing, read the introduction to referencing.

How OSCOLA works, in brief

Reference your sources of information in footnotes and a bibliography.

Footnotes

Example of footnotes

  • When citing another work in your text, insert a small superscript number (eg1) to denote a footnote.
  • In the footnote at the bottom of the same page, insert the reference.
  • In your footnote reference, refer to a specific page - or range of pages - if appropriate (this is known as 'pinpointing').

Microsoft Word has an inbuilt utility for inserting footnotes. See the Microsoft 2007 tutorial on inserting footnotes.

Bibliography

Example of a bibliography

  • At the end of your work (and before any appendices) include all your references in a full bibliography.
  • Your bibliography is a list of every source of information you have used in preparing your piece of work, including sources you have used for background reading but not necessarily quoted from or referred to directly in your work.
  • In your bibliography reference the information source as a whole, not specific pages.

Your bibliography should be laid out in three parts:

  • Table of cases
  • Table of legislation
  • Bibliography (ie, all other secondary sources, such as books, journal and newspaper articles, official publications, etc.)

Your tutor may prefer that your tables of cases and legislation appear separately at the beginning of your work. Always check with your tutor which format you should follow.

Format references in the OSCOLA style

References in your footnotes and bibliography must be formatted in the OSCOLA style - eg, with correct use of italics, punctuation and brackets, and with all the required bibliographic information present and correctly ordered.

The OSCOLA guides (4th edition) are published - for free - by the University of Oxford's Law Faculty. They contain the definitive and authoritative guidance on how to format your references in the OSCOLA style.

In addition, UWE has supplied some extra guidance on sources of information not covered by the OSCOLA guide.

The Oxford referencing style

The Oxford Referencing style is a note citation system.It is also sometimes referred to as a documentary-note style. It has two components:

  1. Footnote Citation
  2. Reference List

Please remember that there are many variations on the Oxford style of referencing. The examples presented in this guide are recommendations only. Always check your unit outline to determine any preferences. No matter which variations on this style you use, the most important thing is to be consistent throughout your assignment.

Footnote citation

  • A superscript number is inserted in your text at the point where you refer to (cite) your source of information. This superscript number then appears at the bottom of the page where the footnote is recorded.
  • State the author's given name or initial before the surname (e.g. John Smith).
  • Cite a single page reference, for example p. 3, or more than one page, for example pp. 3-6.
  • Surname/short title: If you refer to the same work again in the footnotes, use only the author's surname and the page number(s) for subsequent references. If the references are not successive use the author's surname then a short title and page number(s) for subsequent references. Omit the place of publication, publisher, and date of publication. Similarly if you refer to more than one work by the same author you can use the surname and short title in subsequent references to distinguish between the works. See examples provided on the Example text page.
  • Both direct and indirect quotations (paraphrasing) must be acknowledged. Footnotes are also used to acknowledge the source of information, ideas or interpretations, even if they are described rather than paraphrased. Failure to properly acknowledge sources may constitute plagiarism.
  • Direct quotations should be enclosed with single quotation marks; if the quotation is more than around 35 words, separate the quote from the main text and indent it, without quotation marks. This indentation should be single spaced, regardless of the spacing of the rest of the text.

Footnote example

Glanville-Hicks was by no means the first to make this connection. The British Scholar Winnington-Ingram had come to a similar conclusion more than 20 years earlier, observing that 'in all probability [ancient] Greek music was closely related to that of the contemporary Orient ...'.

1R.P. Winnington-Ingram, Mode in Ancient Greek Music, London, Cambridge University Press, 1936, p. vii.

Reference list

  • The full details for each citation or reference is then listed at the end of your essay or assignment.
  • References are listed in alphabetical order by author's surname. If you have cited more than one work by the same author, you should arrange them by date, the earliest first and alphabetically within a single year.Repeat the author's name for each citation

Johnson, A., Epidemology 1900-1945, London, Penguin Press, 2003

Johnson, A., Diseases and cures in the Midwest, London,Penguin Press, 2005

  • Use only the initials of the authors' given names. Use full stops and no spaces between the initials.
  • When citing a journal article, include the full page numbers for the article, e.g. pp. 165-217.
  • The format of the reference (i.e. how it is displayed) depends on the type of reference you are citing; below is an example of a journal article reference.
  • In footnotes, the author’s given name or initial precedes the surname i.e. P. Grimshaw, while in the reference list the surname comes first i.e. Grimshaw, P.
  • Reference list entries for books do not contain page numbers.
  • See Reference Formats tab for a full list of reference examples

Reference list example [Journal Article]

Mintz, S., 'Food Enigmas, Colonial and Postcolonial', Gastronomica,vol. 10, no. 1, 2010, p. 149.

  1. Authors, author initials [See the Reference Formats tab for examples where there are more than one author.]
  2. Article title
  3. Journal Title
  4. Volume
  5. Issue Number
  6. Year of Publication
  7. Page Numbers

TurabianReferencing Guide

Kate L. Turabian'sManual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations presents two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (sometimes called reference list style). These styles are essentially the same as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style, sixteenth edition, with slight modifications for the needs of student writers.

Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in footnotes or endnotes and, usually, a bibliography.

The more concise author-date style has long been used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in parentheses in the text by author's last name and date of publication. The parenthetical citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Aside from the use of notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style. Click on the tabs below to see some common examples of materials cited in each style. For a more detailed description of the styles and numerous specific examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of the 8th edition of Turabian for bibliography style and chapters 18 and 19 for author-date style. If you are uncertain which style to use in a paper, consult your instructor.

Notes-Bibliography Style: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate citations using notes-bibliography style. Examples of notes are followed by shortened versions of citations to the same source. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of Turabian. For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, click on the Author-Date tab above.

Book

One author

  1. Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (Boston: Little, Brown, 2000), 64-65.
  2. Gladwell, Tipping Point, 71. Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000.

Two or more authors

  1. Peter Morey and AminaYaqin, Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011), 52.
  2. Morey and Yaqin, Framing Muslims, 60-61. Morey, Peter, and AminaYaqin.Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.
  3. For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by "et al."("and others"):

  4. Jay M. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics after Adorno (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), 276.
  5. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics, 18. Bernstein, Jay M., Claudia Brodsky, Anthony J. Cascardi, Thierry de Duve, Ales Erjavec, Robert Kaufman, and Fred Rush.Art and Aesthetics after Adorno. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

Editor or translator instead of author

  1. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91-92.
  2. Lattimore, Iliad, 24. Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Editor or translator in addition to author

  1. Jane Austen, Persuasion: An Annotated Edition, ed. Robert Morrison (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011), 311-12.
  2. Austen, Persuasion, 315. Austen, Jane. Persuasion: An Annotated Edition. Edited by Robert Morrison. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011.

Chapter or other part of a book

  1. Angeles Ramirez, "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images," in Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, ed. FaeghehShirazi (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010), 231.
  2. Ramirez, "Muslim Women," 239-40. Ramirez, angeles. "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images." In Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, edited by FaeghehShirazi, 227-44. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

  1. William Cronon, foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012), ix.
  2. Cronon, foreword, x-xi. Cronon, William. Foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege, ix-xii. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012.

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

  1. Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration (New York: Vintage, 2010), 183-84, Kindle.
  2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds.,The Founders' Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, accessed October 15, 2011, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
  3. Joseph P. Quinlan, The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 211, accessed December 8, 2012, ProQuestEbrary.
  4. Wilkerson, Warmth of Other Suns, 401.
  5. Kurland and Lerner, Founders' Constitution.
  6. Quinlan, Last Economic Superpower, 88.

Wilkerson, Isabel. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. New York: Vintage, 2010. Kindle. Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders' Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed October 15, 2011. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Quinlan, Joseph P. The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Accessed December 8, 2012. ProQuestEbrary.

Journal article

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.

Article in a print journal

  1. Alexandra Bogren, "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate," Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 156.
  2. Bogren, "Gender and Alcohol," 157. Bogren, Alexandra. "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate." Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 155-69.

Article in an online journal

For a journal article consulted online, include an access date and a URL. For articles that include a DOI, form the URL by appending the DOI to http://dx.doi.org/ rather than using the URL in your address bar. The DOI for the article in the Brown example below is 10.1086/660696. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead.

  1. Campbell Brown, "Consequentialize This," Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 752, accessed December 1, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.
  2. AnastaciaKurylo, "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum," China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 16, accessed March 9, 2013, Academic OneFile.
  3. Brown, "Consequentialize This," 761.
  4. Kurylo, "Linsanity," 18-19.

Brown, Campbell. "Consequentialize This." Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 749-71. Accessed December 1, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696. Kurylo, Anastacia. "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum." China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 15-28. Accessed March 9, 2013. Academic OneFile.

Magazine article

  1. Jill Lepore, "Dickens in Eden," New Yorker, August 29, 2011, 52
  2. Lepore, "Dickens in Eden," 54-55. Lepore, Jill. "Dickens in Eden." New Yorker, August 29, 2011.

Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker noted in a New York Times article on January 23, 2013, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

  1. Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker, "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat," New York Times, January 23, 2013, accessed January 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html.
  2. Bumiller and Shanker, "Pentagon Lifts Ban." Bumiller, Elisabeth, and Thom Shanker. "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat." New York Times, January 23, 2013. Accessed January 24, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html. Levin, Dana S. "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010.

Book review

  1. Joel Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History, ed. Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson, American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 754, accessed December 9, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.
  2. Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History,752. Mokyr, Joel. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson.American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 752-55. Accessed December 9, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

Thesis or dissertation

  1. Dana S. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools" (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010), 101-2.
  2. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex," 98. Levin, Dana S. "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

  1. "Rachel Adelman, " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition" (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009).
  2. Adelman, "Such Stuff as Dreams." Adelman, Rachel. " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009.

Website

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note ("As of July 27, 2012, Google's privacy policy had been updated to include . . ."). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified.

  1. "Privacy Policy," Google Policies & Principles, last modified July 27, 2012, accessed January 3, 2013, http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.
  2. Google, "Privacy Policy." Google. "Privacy Policy." Google Policies & Principles. Last modified July 27, 2012. Accessed January 3, 2013. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Blog entry or comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text ("In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 16, 2012, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

  1. Gary Becker, "Is Capitalism in Crisis?," The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012, accessed February 16, 2012, http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.
  2. Becker, "Is Capitalism in Crisis?" Becker, Gary. "Is Capitalism in Crisis?" The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012. Accessed February 16, 2012. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.

E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

  1. John Doe, e-mail message to author, July 21, 2012.

Comment posted on a social networking service

Like e-mail and text messages, comments posted on a social networking service may be cited in running text ("In a message posted to her Twitter account on August 25, 2011, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

  1. Sarah Palin, Twitter post, August 25, 2011 (10:23 p.m.), accessed September 4, 2011, http://twitter.com/sarahpalinusa.

Vancouver Referencing

The Vancouver Citation Style is one of the common citation systems used for medical journals. Being recognized as a parallel name for the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, the Vancouver Citation Style has the same format of the National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation.

The Vancouver referencing system is applicable in two places: in texts where researchers has borrowed a concept or information and at the end of the paper, where researchers list all the citation sources used for accomplishing their studies.

Reference List

References on the Reference List are numbered and are listed in the order in which they are originally referenced in the text.

Book—Single Author/Editor

Format:

  1. Author. Title: subtitle (if available). Edition (other than 1st). Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

Example:

  1. Snell RS. Clinical anatomy by regions. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.

Book—Multiple Authors/Editors (2-6 Authors)*

Format:

  1. Author(s), editors (if editors, include this denotation). Title: subtitle (if available). Edition (other than 1st). Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
  2. Example:

  3. Voight ML, Hoogenboom BJ, Prentice WE, editors. Musculoskeletal interventions: techniques for therapeutic exercise. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2007.

*If a book as more than six authors/editors, write “et al” after the sixth name.

Organizational Author

Format:

  1. Organization. Title: subtitle (if available). Edition (other than 1st). Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
  2. Example:

  3. American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to physical therapist practice. 2nd ed. Alexandria: American Physical Therapy Association; 2003.

Chapter or Article within a Book

Format:

  1. Chapter author. Title of chapter. In: Book author/editor. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Page numbers.
  2. Example:

  3. Solensky R. Drug allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockey P, editor. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2004. P. 585-606.

eBook

Format:

  1. Author(s)/Editor(s). Title: subtitle (if available) [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year [date of citation]. Available from Name of database: eBook URL
  2. Example:

  3. Salley K. Physical medicine and rehabilitation [Internet]. New Delhi: World Technologies; 2012 [cited 2013 Nov 17]. Available from EBSCOhost eBook Collection: http://search.ebscohost.com.prx-usa.lirn.net/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=406964&site=ehost-live

Note: In Vancouver style, journal titles are referenced in their National Library of Medicine abbreviated form. If the journal abbreviation is unlisted, please refer to the NLM Catalog: Journals referenced in the NCBI Databases.

Article from a Print Journal

Format:

  1. Author(s)/Editor(s). Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. Date of publication; Volume(Issue): Page numbers.
  2. Example:

  3. Lobach DF. Clinical informatics: supporting the use of evidence in practice and relevance to physical therapy education. J Phys Ther Educ. 2004; 18(3):24-34.

Article from an Online Database

Format:

  1. Author(s)/Editor(s). Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal [Internet]. Date of publication [date of access]; Volume(Issue): Page numbers. Available from Name of Database: Article URL
  2. Example:

  3. Bouwer M, Goosen TC, Rheeders M. Drug-drug interaction after single oral doses of the furanocoumarin methoxsalen and cyclosporine. J Clin Pharmacol [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2013 May 3]; 46(7): 768-775. Available from Academic OneFile: http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA148007854&v=2.1&u=lirn_crevc&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=01868ef0153ff6b5a38b54db086bc7fd

Article –ePub ahead of Print

Format:

  1. Author(s)/Editor(s). Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal [Internet]. Date of publication [date of access]; Volume(Issue): Page numbers. Date of ePublication. Available from Name of Database: Article URL.
  2. Example:

  3. Liu-Ambrose T, Nagamatsu LS, Hsu CL, Bolandzadeh N. Emerging concept: ‘central benefit model’ of exercise in falls prevention. Br J Sports Med [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2013 Jul 7]; 47(2): 115-117. EPub 2012 Apr 20. Available from the British Journal of Sports Medicine: http://bjsm.bmj.com.prx-usa.lirn.net/content/47/2/115.full?sid=79849b3a-9936-4e23-a4ad-b06b1e3ff51b

Web Page

Format:

  1. Author(s)/Editor(s) (if available). Title of web site [Internet]. City of publication (State initials): Publisher; Copyright date. Title of web page or article; Date of publication [date of access]; [approximate screen length]. Available from: URL
  2. Example:

  3. American Physical Therapy Association. American Physical Therapy Association [Internet]. Alexandria (VA): American Physical Therapy Association; c2013. Professionalism; 2013 Nov 12 [cited 2013 Nov 20]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.apta.org/professionalism/

In-Text Citations

The Vancouver Citation style uses the corresponding numbers from the Reference List at the end of the paper to document in-text citations. If, in your text, you cite a piece of work more than once, the same citation number should be used. You can write the number in brackets or as superscript.

Citing one author

Example: Recent research (1) indicates that the number of duplicate papers being published is increasing.

or

Recent research1 indicates that the number of duplicate papers being published is increasing.

Citing more than one piece of work at the same time

If you want to cite several pieces of work in the same sentence, you will need to include the citation number for each piece of work. A hyphen should be used to link numbers which are inclusive, and a comma used where numbers are not consecutive. The following is an example where works 6, 7, 8, 9, 13 and 15 have been cited in the same place in the text.

Example: Several studies (6–9, 13, 15) have examined the effect of congestion charging in urban areas.

Citing the author’s name in your text

You can use the author’s name in your text, but you must insert the citation number as well.

Example: As emphasised by Watkins (2) carers of diabetes sufferers ‘require perseverance and an understanding of humanity’ (p.1).

Citing more than one author’s name in your text

If a work has more than one author and you want to cite author names in your text, use ‘et al’ after the first author.

Example: Simons et al (3) state that the principle of effective stress is ‘imperfectly known and understood by many practising engineers’ (p.4).

Citing works by the same author written in the same year

If you cite a new work which has the same author and was written in the same year as an earlier citation, each work will have a different number.

Example: Communication of science in the media has increasingly come under focus, particularly where reporting of facts and research is inaccurate (4, 5).

Citing from works with no obvious author

If you need to cite a piece of work which does not have an obvious author, you should use what is called a ‘corporate’ author. For example, many online works will not have individually named authors, and in many cases the author will be an organisation or company. Using the Vancouver style you don’t have to include the author in your citation in the text of your work, but you still need to include an author in the full reference at the end of your work. The citation to a work written by a ‘corporate’ author could appear in your text as:

Example: The Department of Health (6) advocates a national strategy for creating a framework to drive improvements in dementia services.

or

A national strategy is creating a framework to drive improvements in dementia services (6).

If you are unable to find either a named or corporate author, you should use ‘Anon’ as the author name. Be careful: if you cannot find an author for online work, it is not a good idea to use this work as part of your research. It is essential that you know where a piece of work has originated, because you need to be sure of the quality and reliability of any information you use.

Citing from chapters written by different authors

Some books may contain chapters written by different authors. When citing work from such a book, the author who wrote the chapter should be cited, not the editor of the book.

Secondary referencing

Secondary references are when an author refers to another author’s work and the primary source is not available. When citing such work the author of the primary source and the author of the work it was cited in should be used.

Example: According to Colluzzi and Pappagallo as cited by Holding et al (7) most patients given opiates do not become addicted to such drugs.

You are advised that secondary referencing should be avoided wherever possible and you should always try to find the original work. If it is not possible to obtain the original work, please note that you reference the secondary source not the primary source. Only reference the source that you have used.

Citing a direct quotation

If a direct quote from a book, article, etc., is used you must:

  • Use single quotation marks (double quotation marks are usually used for quoting direct speech)
  • State the page number

Example: Simons et al (3) state that the principle of effective stress is ‘imperfectly known and understood by many practising engineers’ (p.4).

Citing an image / illustration / table / diagram / photograph / figure / picture

You should provide an in-text citation for any images, illustrations, photographs, diagrams, tables, figures or pictures that you reproduce in your work, and provide a full reference as with any other type of work. They should be treated as direct quotes in that the author(s) should be acknowledged and page numbers shown; both in your text where the diagram is discussed or introduced, and in the caption you write for it.

In-text citation:

Example: Table illustrating checklist of information for common sources (8: p.22).

or

‘Geological map of the easternmost region of São Nicolau’ (9: p.532).

Citing from multimedia works

If you need to cite a multimedia work, you would usually use the title of the TV programme (including online broadcasts) or video recording, or title of the film (whether on DVD, online, or video) as the author. If a video is posted on YouTube or other video-streaming web services then you should reference the person that uploaded the video (note this might be a username). Using the Vancouver style, you don’t have to include the author in your citation in the text of your work, but you still need to include the author of the work in your reference list at the end of your work.

Citing from an interview or personal communication

Always use the surname of the interviewee / practitioner as the author.

Tips on good quotation practice

Quotations longer than two lines should be inserted as a separate, indented paragraph.

Example: Smith (7) summarises the importance of mathematics to society and the knowledge economy, stating that:

‘Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis. It is the language of science and technology. It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11)

or

A recent UK report (7) summarised the importance of mathematics to society and the knowledge economy, stating that:

‘Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis. It is the language of science and technology. It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11)

If you want to insert a long quotation (over two lines) but do not to want include all of the text, you can remove the unnecessary text and replace with ‘...’.

As summarised by Smith (7):

‘Mathematics provides a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis ... It enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11)

You should only do this when you use a quotation taken from one paragraph.

When you use quotations within your text, sometimes you may want to insert one or two words in the quotation so that your complete sentence is grammatically correct. To indicate that you have inserted words into a quotation, these have to be enclosed in square brackets.

A hub for best essay distratn and assignment writing

Smith (7) provides a number of reasons as to why mathematics is important, stating that it is ‘a powerful universal language and intellectual toolkit for abstraction, generalization and synthesis ... [and] enables us to probe the natural universe and to develop new technologies that have helped us control and master our environment, and change societal expectations and standards of living.’ (p.11)

Chicago Referencing Style

Originates from the University of Chicago, the Chicago referencing style is considered as a standard system for acknowledging source materials and producing publications. Generally, the Chicago style encompasses two types of documentation process:

  1. Instead of in-text citation, reference sources are numbered through footnote or endnote.
  2. At the end of texts, place reference list by compiling all the reference sources used.

Footnotes

  • A subscript number is placed within the text (usually at the end of a sentence) to indicate a footnote.
  • The number is repeated at the beginning of the footnote at the bottom of the page, and is full size, (not superscript) and followed by a full stop.
  • When citing a source for the first time, always cite in full.
  • Subsequent footnotes of the same source (consecutively listed) are replaced with the word ibid, followed by the page number.
  • Subsequent footnotes of the same source (not consecutively listed) are shortened.
  • If a source has three or more authors, always cite in full the first time, and subsequently shortened to First Author et al.

Formatting citations in footnotes

Punctuation, spacing and the order of elements in the citation are important, and examples should be followed carefully. Notice for instance:

  • The author's name is not inverted, and is written in full.
  • Publishing details of books are enclosed in brackets.
  • Journal titles, book chapter titles are enclosed in double quotation marks.
  • The first line of each footnote is indented two spaces from the page margin.
  • Different source types require slightly different information to be included in the citation.

How to Create Footnotes

Numbered markers in the text may be created using the footnote function of word processing software.

Citing Example:

"Ultimately we will learn more about some of the celebrated events in Australian history if we turn to the old almanacs and their tables of the moon."1

Footnote: 1. Geoffrey Blainey, Black Kettle and Full Moon: Daily Life in a Vanished Australia (Penguin/Viking: Melbourne, 2003), 7.

Subsequent Note entry: 5. Blainey, Black Kettle, 11.

Reference list

  • Alphabetically lists all sources cited and consulted for the assignment.
  • Different source types require slightly different information to be included in the citation (refer to the source types listed under the Chicago tab).

Formatting citations in the bibliography

The format of citations in the bibliography is similar to that used in the full footnote citation. However, the following differences are important.

  • References must be listed alphabetically.
  • References in the reference/bibliography list should be indented on the second line (in cases where reference is two or more lines).
  • The name of the first author is inverted, so that the surname or family name appears first.
  • The elements, or sections, of the citation are separated by full stops, not commas
  • Publishing details for books are not enclosed in brackets.

How to Create a Bibliography

Your bibliography should document all the works you consulted in preparing your essay, whether you cited them directly, or not.

Entries should be listed alphabetically by the first author's surname or family name. If there is no named author, list by the first word in the work's title, ignoring 'A', 'An' or 'The'.

Punctuation

  • Subscript numbers are always placed after punctuation (e.g. full stops, brackets and commas).
  • Footnotes and references should always end with a full stop (except in the case of where a URL or DOI are inserted).
  • The title of a resource should be capitalised (e.g. An Encyclopedia of World History).
  • Acceptable abbreviations include:
    • chap. for chapter
    • ed/eds. for editor(s), edition&edited by
    • et al. for and others
    • n.d for no date
    • pt. for part
    • rev. for revised, revised by, revision&review
    • trans. for translator(s)&translated by

Given below are some common citation types in Chicago referencing style along with appropriate examples:

Book with one author

  • Reference list: Author’s Last name, First name. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Example:Thelen, Kathleen. How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

  • Footnote: #. Author's First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page.

Example:1. Kathleen Thelen, How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 271.

Book with two authors

  • Reference list: First author Last name, First name, and second author First name Last name. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example:Gourevitch, Peter and James Shinn. Political Power and Corporate Control: The New Global Politics of Corporate Governance. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005.

  • Footnote: #. First author First name Last name and second author First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), Page.

Example:2. Peter Gourevitch and James Shinn, Political Power and Corporate Control: The New Global Politics of Corporate Governance (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005), 200.

Book with more than three authors

For more than three authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the footnote, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”).

  • Reference list: First Author Last name, First name, remaining authors’ First name Last name. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.
  • Example: De la Bédoyère, Camilla, Ihor Holubizky, Julia Kelly, Michael Kerrigan, James Mackay, William Matar, Tom Middlemos, Michael Robinson, and Iain Zaczek. A Brief History of Art. London: Flame Tree Publishing, 2006.
  • Footnote: #. First author First name Last name et al., Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication), Page.

Example: 3. Camilla de La Bédoyère et al., A Brief History of Art (London: Flame Tree Publishing, 2006), 101.

Book with a corporate author

  • Reference list: Organisation. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example: World Bank. Strategies for Sustainable Financing of Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2008.

  • Footnote: #. Organisation, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page.

Example: 4. World Bank, Strategies for Sustainable Financing of Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2008), 11.

Book with an editor

  • Reference list: Editor(s) Last name, First name and last editor First name Last name, eds. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example: Colhoun, Craig and Brian S. Turner, eds. The Sage Handbook of Sociology. London: Sage, 2005.

  • Footnote: #. Editor(s) First name Last name, eds, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, date of publication).

Example: 5. Craig Colhoun and Brian S. Turner, eds, The Sage Handbook of Sociology (London: Sage, 2005).

Chapter in an edited book

  • Reference list: Author(s) Last name, First name Initital(s). “Title of chapter.” In Book Title, edited by First name Last name, Pages. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example: Sheringham, Michael. “Archiving.” In Restless Cities, edited by Matthew Beaumont and Gregory Dart, 10-24. London: Verso, 2010.

  • Footnote: #. First Author(s) First name Initials Last name, “Title of Chapter,” in Book Title, ed. First name Initials Last name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication), Page.

Example: 6. Michael Sheringham, “Archiving,” in Restless Cities, ed. Matthew Beaumont and Gregory Dart (London: Verson, 2010), 9.

Print Journal article

  • Reference list: Author(s) Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume, Issue no. (Year): pages.

Example: Barber, Marcus. “Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health: Emerging Crises and Systemic Solutions.” The Australian Journal of Anthropology 21, no. 3 (2010): 390 – 391.

  • Footnote: #. Author(s) First name Last name, “Title of Article,” Journal Title Volume, Issue no. (Year): Page.

Example: 7. Marcus Barber, “Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health: Emerging Crises and Systemic Solutions,” The Australian Journal of Anthropology 21, no. 3 (2010): 390.

Online-journal article

You should include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if available to you. This is a permanent link that will always lead to the source. If this is not listed in your source, use the URL instead. You are recommended to include an access date if it is recommended by your School, Discipline or Publisher.

  • Reference list: Author(s) Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume, Issue no. (Year): Pages. Accessed Month Day, Year. doi or url:.

Example: Mulvin, Lynda and Steven E. Sidebotham. "Roman Game Boards from Abu Sha'ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt)." Antiquity 78, no. 301 (2004): 602-617. Accessed May 27, 2013. url: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=14595148&site=ehost-live.

Without accessed date: Stern, Eliyahu. “Genius and Demographics in Modern Jewish History.” Jewish Quarterly Review 101 (Summer 2011): 347-382, doi: 10.1353/jqr.2011.0022.

  • Footnote: #. Author(s) First name Last name, “Title of Article,” Journal Title Volume, Issue no. (Year): page, accessed Month Day, Year, doi or url:.

Example: 8. Lynda Mulvin and Steven E. Sidebotham. “Roman Game Boards from Abu Sha'ar (Red Sea Coast, Egypt),” Antiquity 78, no. 301 (2004): 604, accessed May 27, 2013, url: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=14595148&site=ehost-live.

Without accessed date: 8. Eliyahu Stern, “Genius and Demographics in Modern Jewish History,” Jewish Quarterly Review 101 (Summer 2011): 355, doi:10.1353/jqr.2011.0022.

Print Newspaper article

  • Reference list: Author(s) Last name, First name and last author First name Last name. “Article title.” Newspaper, Month Day , Year.

Example: Oliver, Emmet. "Aer Lingus to Strengthen Fleet." Irish Times, February 10, 2006.

  • Footnote: #. Author(s) First name Last name, “Article title,” Newspaper, Month Day, Year, Page.

Example: 9. Emmet Oliver, "Aer Lingus to Strengthen Fleet," Irish Times, Febr uary 10, 2006, 14.

Online Newspaper article

  • Reference list: Author(s) Last name, First name and last author First name Last name. “Article title.” Newspaper, Day Month, Year published. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

Example: Kelly, Morgan. “Burden of Irish Debt Could Yet Eclipse that of Greece.” Irish Times, May 22, 2010. Accessed May 4, 2011. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/opinion/2010/0522/1224270888132.html.

  • Footnote: #. Author(s) First Name Last name, “Article title.” Newspaper, Day Month, Year published, accessed Day Month, Year, URL.

Example: Morgan Kelly, “Burden of Irish Debt Could Yet Eclipse that of Greece.” Irish Times, May 22, 2010, accessed May 4, 2011, http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/opinion/2010/0522/1224270888132.html.

Website/ page on a website

  • Reference list: “Title of webpage." Website name. Last modified date, year. URL.

Example: “Google Privacy Policy.” Google. Last modified March 11, 2009. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacy/

  • Footnote: #. “Title of webpage," Website name, Last modified: date, year. URL.

Example: 10. “Google Privacy Policy,” Google, Last modified March 11, 2009, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacy/

Blog

Generally, blog entries and comments are cited only as notes.

  • Footnote: #. Author(s) First name Last name, "Title of Post," Name of Blog, Month Day, Year, URL.

Example: 11. Brendan Walsh, "Lorenzo Bini Smaghi on the Impact of Basel III," Irish Economy, April 2, 2011, http://www.irisheconomy.ie/index.php/2011/04/02/lorenzo-bini-smaghi-on-the-impact-of-basel-iii/.

E-Mail

Unpublished interviews and personal communications are cited only as notes.

  • Footnote: #. First Name Last name, Description, Day Month, Year.

Example: 12. Mike Forrester, e-mail message to author, January 20, 2011.

Interviews

Unpublished interviews and personal communications are cited only as notes

  • Footnote: #. First name Last Name of interviewee, interviewed by First name Last Name, Day Month, Year.

Example: 13. Mark Jones, interview by Paul Scott, April 15, 2009.

Government agency publication

  • Reference list: Organisation. Title by author/editor First Name Last Name (if given). Other identification information. Place of Publication. Year.

Example: U.S. Department of the Interior. Minerals Management Service. An Oilspill Risk Analysis for the Central Gulf and Western Gulf of Mexico, by Robert P. La Belle. Open-file report 83-119, U.S. Geological Survey. Denver, 1983.

  • Footnote: #. Organisation, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

Example: 14. U.S. Department of the Interior, An Oilspill Risk Analysis for the Central Gulf and Western Gulf of Mexico (Denver, Colo.: U.S. Geological Survey, 1983), 10.

Parliamentary and legal material

  • Reference list: Country. City/Province. Bill number, Title. Parliament session, Year. Any other relevant information.

Example: Canada. Ottawa. C-34, Agricultural Marketing Programs Act. 2d session, 35th Parliament, 1997. Assented to 25 April 1997, Statutes of Canada 1997, c. 20.

  • Footnote: #. Bill number, Title, session number, Parliament number, Year, any other relevant information.

Example: 15. Bill C-34, Agricultural Marketing Programs Act, 2d sess., 35th Parliament, 1997 (assented to 25 April 1997), Statutes of Canada 1997, c. 20

EU publications

  • Reference list: Organisation. Title by author/editor First Name Last Name (if given). Other identification information. Place of Publication. Year.

Example: European Union. European Parliament. The Impact of German Unification on the European Community. Working Document No.1. Brussels, 1990.

  • Footnote: #. Organisation, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page.

Example: 16. European Parliament, The Impact of German Unification on the European Community (Brussels: European Union, 1990), 20.

Conferences

  • Reference list: Author(s) Last name, First name and last author First name Last name. "Title of Paper." In Conference proceedings name. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example: Balado, Félix. "On the Shannon Capacity of DNA Data Embedding." In Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Dalls, March 14-19, 2010. Dallas: IEEE, 2010.

  • Footnote: #. Author(s) First name Last name, "Title of Paper," in Conference Proceedings name (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), Page.

Example: 17. Félix Balado, "On the Shannon Capacity of DNA Data Embedding," in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Dalls, March 14-19, 2010 (Dallas: IEEE, 2010), 22.

Theses

  • Reference list: Author Last name, First name. "Title of Thesis." Award/type of thesis, Name of academic institution, Year.

Example: Feeney, Thomas "Seán MacEntee and the Development of Public Policy in Independent Ireland." PhD thesis, University College Dublin, Ireland, 2005.

  • Footnote: #. Author First name Last name, "Title of Thesis" (Award/type of thesis, Name of academic institution, Year), Page.

Example: 18. Thomas Feeney, "Seán MacEntee and the Development of Public Policy in Independent Ireland" (PhD thesis, University College Dublin, Ireland, 2005), 30.

Audio-visual material

  • Reference list: Title of Work. Directed/Performed by First name Last name. Original release year. City: Studio/Distributor, Format release year. Format.

Example: The Third Man. Directed by Carol Reed. 1949. London: Optimum, 2006. DVD.

Footnote: #. Title of Work, directed/performed by First name Last name (original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, Format release year.), Format.

  • Example: 19. The Third Man, directed by Carol Reed (1949; London: Optimum, 2006.), DVD.

Electronic Books

If a book is available in print and online you must cite the version of book you consulted for your work. You are recommended to include an access date if it is recommended by your School, Discipline or Publisher.

  • Reference list: Author(s) Last name, First name. Title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Edition. Accessed Month Day, Year. url (if available).

Example: Beaumont, Lesley A. Childhood in ancient Athens: iconography and social history. London: Routledge, 2012. Accessed May 27, 2013. http://lib.myilibrary.com/Open.aspx?id=428492

  • Footnote: #. Author(s) First name Last name, Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Edition. URL (if available).

Example: 20. Lesley A. Beaumont, Childhood in ancient Athens: iconography and social history (London: Routledge, 2012), accessed May 27, 2013. http://lib.myilibrary.com/Open.aspx?id=428492

EndNote

EndNote is a software application that allows researchers store and manage all references in one place. It is available via Software for U and the Library runs regular introductory and advanced training sessions.

  • Users can record, store and manage references in hundreds of citation styles.
  • Users can add references manually or search and download directly from online databases and library catalogues.
  • EndNote Cite While You Write features allows users to insert citations easily and creates bibliographies automatically in Microsoft Word (and Apple's Pages '09 with EndNote version X2).

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